Standard Heat Pipes

Straight Heat Pipes

A heat pipe is an extremely efficient thermal conductor. It can transfer large quantities of heat over a long distance essentially at a constant temperature. It is typically a sealed copper or aluminum tube containing a wick structure on its inner surface and a small amount of working fluid at its saturation state. The fluid absorbs heat and vaporizes at hot spots and condenses and releases heat at cool spots. As the process goes on, heat is transferred from the hot spots to the cool spots.

Because a heat pipe has no moving parts, it is a highly reliable device with demonstrated lifespan of over 20 years. The reliability depends on the manufacturing process and the purity of the materials. At MyHeatSinks, all heat pipes are 100% individually tested to ensure functionalities and reliability.

Wick Structure and Working Fluid

Cutaway View of Heat Pipe

The performance of a heat pipe is mainly determined by its wick structure, which performs 3 primary functions: First, to allow the backflow of the liquid from the condenser section to the evaporator section; Second, to allow the heat transfer between the inner wall and the fluid; Third, to provide room for the fluid to change phase. We currently provide heat pipes with 3 different types of wick structures – the sintered wick, the micro-groove wick and the compound wick. The sintered wick allows high heat flux and wide working angle and is recommended for most electronic applications. Micro-groove wick offers light weight and low cost, but its working angle is limited and often gravity dependent. Compound wick combines the features of both sintered and micro-groove wicks and is preferable in some applications.

The most common working fluids used in heat pipes include water, ammonia, acetone and methanol. In moderate temperature range, water is the ideal working fluid due to its high latent heat and proper boiling point. For low temperature applications, ammonia, acetone and methanol can be used.

Standard Dimensions

Heat Pipe Dimensions

Diameter ØD4 mm5 mm6 mm8 mm10 mm
Length L60-600 mm60-600 mm60-600 mm60-600 mm60-600 mm
Length L11-3 mm2-4 mm3-5 mm4-7 mm5-8 mm
Length L27-9 mm8-10 mm9-11 mm11-13 mm13-15 mm

Large Diameter Heat Pipes

Heat Pipe Dimensions

The largest diameter we currently make is 12.7 mm (0.5 inch). The heat pipes have micro-groove wick and are designed for high-power LED applications and solar systems.

Reliability Test

No.Test ItemTest ConditionsSampling RatioPurpose
1High Temp. Aging TestAmbient Temp. 210 C for 12 hr100%Leakage check & aging
2Thermal Response TestInsert 1/3 – ½ length of pipe into 50°C water. The temp of other end shall rise to standard value in 25 seconds.100%Vacuum & leakage check
3Qmax TestHeating Length = 25-35mm, Test temp = 60°C100%To measure the max. heat transfer rate
4Rth Thermal Resistance TestFix heat transfer rate and measure temp. difference of heat pipes>1pcs/2hrTo ensure thermal resistance of each pipe be lower than spec
5Accelerated Life Test140 C for 1000hr. Performance decrease by less than 7%By caseTo predict life of heat pipe at certain operating temp.
6Continuous Life TestContinuous testing at normal operating conditionsBy caseTo measure actual life of heat pipe until failure occurs
7Thermal Cycling TestTemp. varies from -30 C to 120 C in 10hr, 600 cyclesBy caseTo measure performance variation after thermal cycling

RoHS Compliance

Our heat pipes are in compliance with the European Union Directive 2002/95/EC on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS Directive).

Restricted Substances
SymbolLimitTest Method
Lead
Pb<1000ppmEPA 3050B
Mercury
Hg<1000ppmEPA 3052
Cadmium
Cd<1000ppmEN 1122
Hexavalent Chromium
Cr6+<1000ppmEPA 3060A
Polybrominated Biphenyls
PBB<1000ppmEPA 3540C
Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
PBDE<1000ppmEPA 3540C

Characteristics and Features

High Thermal Conductivity – A heat pipe has much lower thermal resistance and much higher thermal conductivity than any solid conductors such as silver, copper and aluminum, enabling it to transfer heat more efficiently and evenly in several orders. For example, a 6mm diameter heat pipe with sintered wick can transfer up to 120W heat.

Excellent Isothermal Performance – Due to the small pressure drop of saturated vapor from the evaporator section to the condenser section, a heat pipe can maintain almost a constant temperature over its full length.

Reciprocity of Heat Flow Direction – The circulation inside a sintered heat pipe is driven by capillary force, instead of gravity. So either end can be the evaporator section or the condenser section.

Adaptability to Environment – Due to the various wick structures, we can supply heat pipes that are suitable and reliable to meet any environmental challenges.

Surface Treatment – Our heat pipes are treated by an anti-oxidation process. They can also be nickel plated or anodized to increase its weldability or heat radiation capability.

Request information or quote of custom heat pipe

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